How exactly do 'fossils' create 'fuel'?

“Methane is also commonly found on planets such as Saturn (and its moon Titan) where science has never recorded the presence of living plants or animals.


How exactly do ‘fossils’ create ‘fuel’?
By Jerome R. Corsi

17 Nov 05 – (Excerpts) “Let’s examine closely the alleged chemical processes by which decaying plants and dinosaurs are supposed to decay into “fossil fuel.”

“Richard Heinberg, one of the core faculty of New College of California … tells us that “the assertion that all oil is abiotic requires extra-ordinary support, because it must overcome abundant evidence” that ties “specific oil accumulations to specific biological origins through a chain of well-understood processes that have been demonstrated, in principle, under laboratory conditions.”

Where is the formula?

So, if what Heinberg asserts is true, we should have no problem discovering the precise laboratory-proven formula under which ancient plant and animal life decay into hydrocarbon fuel.

Seppo Korpela, of the Ohio State University Department of Mechanical Engineering, …argues that fossil fuels form when “the early sedimentary layers” at the bottom of a basin are deprived of oxygen such that the organic matter in them did not decay, “as it does in the common setting of kitchen compost.” Then, ” anaerobic bacteria” can “go to work and turn the organic material into the substance kerogen. Kerogen can be thought of as immature oil.”

“When kerogen is found at depths of between 6,000 and 13,000 feet, and when the temperature and pressure are “right,” the kerogen “in the source rock will be cracked into oil.*

“We have yet to find a chemistry textbook that refers to “kerogen” or describes any combination of ancient algae, tiny Mesozoic sea animals, or dinosaurs as necessary or sufficient ingredients in the formation of common saturated hydrocarbons such as methane, ethane, propane or butane.

Methane is found on other planets

“Methane is also commonly found on planets such as Saturn (and its moon Titan) where science has never recorded the presence of living plants or animals.

“The transformation from “kerogen” to “fossil fuels” appears to be more a matter of faith, rather than an observed process that can be described in a precise chemical formula such that we can replicate in a laboratory the process by which the compound is produced.

“Nobody has yet synthesized crude oil or coal
in the lab from a beaker of algae or ferns.”

“Astronomer Thomas Gold, stated the point succinctly on page 85 of his 1998 book, “The Deep Hot Biosphere: The Myth of Fossil Fuels.” “Nobody has yet synthesized crude oil or coal in the lab from a beaker of algae or ferns.”

“In sharp contrast, methane has been synthetically produced in a rigorous laboratory setting with a full specification of the chemical formulae involved in the combination of iron oxide, calcium carbonate, and water to produce methane at pressure conditions of the Earth’s upper mantle. The scientists conducting the experiment concluded:

“The observation of methane formation at mantle pressures is significant because it demonstrates the existence of abiogenic pathways for the formation of hydrocarbons in the Earth’s interior and suggests that the hydrocarbon budget of the bulk Earth may be larger than conventionally assumed.

No evidence of organic processes on Mars

“Scientists have also recently analyzed spectrographic data validating the formation of methane on Mars by fluid-rock interaction in the crust, with no evidence of biologic or organic processes involved.

“Scientists proposing the abiotic theory of oil have argued that the “Fossil-Fuel” theory fundamentally violates the second law of thermodynamics, a principle which specifies that energy disperses when permitted, such that the energy flow never reverses. For example, consider that when you release the neck of a balloon the air escapes; the air never naturally rushes to concentrate into a balloon without being forced to do so.

“Thomas Gold stated the principle on page 46 of his 1998 book:

It would be surprising indeed if the Earth had obtained its
hydrocarbons only from a source that biology had taken
from another carbon-bearing gas – carbon dioxide – which would have been collected from the atmosphere by photo-synthesizing organisms for manufacture into carbohydrates and then somehow reworked by geology into hydrocarbons.

“In other words, the “fossil fuel” from ancient flora or protoplasm would demand that somehow the air went back into the balloon, a reverse flow-of-energy direction contrary to the second law of thermodynamics. In other words, dead dinosaurs and ancient forests follow naturally the law of entropy, “dust into dust,” not the re-energized “fossil fuel” notion of “dust into oil.” We still lack the laboratory demonstrations authors such as Richard Heinberg claimed we would find.

Has anyone ever taken a flask of downed flora
or dead protoplasm and produced a hydrocarbon
fuel out of the mixture?

Has anyone ever taken a flask of downed flora or dead protoplasm and produced a hydrocarbon fuel out of the mixture, or is this a process for alchemy?”

* “Kerogen is a loose, geological term deriving from the ancient Greek word keros, meaning wax.

The term “anaerobic” refers to a process occurring in the absence of oxygen.

© 2009 WorldNetDaily.com

See entire article:
http://www.worldnetdaily.com/news/article.asp?ARTICLE_ID=47448

Jerome R. Corsi is a staff reporter for WND. He received a Ph.D. from Harvard University in political science in 1972 and has written many books and articles, including his best-sellers “The Obama Nation” and “The Late Great USA.” Other books include “Showdown with Nuclear Iran,”Black Gold Stranglehold: The Myth of Scarcity and the Politics of Oil,” which he co-authored with WND columnist Craig. R. Smith, and “Atomic Iran.”

Lakes of oil on Saturn's moon Titan

“It’s enough to make a Texas oil man drool.”


“Saturn’s moon Titan has rain, lakes, and weather that shapes the moon’s surface as those same processes shape Earth’s,” says this article in the National Journal. “The main differences are that Titan is much, much colder and, instead of water, the rain and lakes are made of liquid methane and other hydrocarbons.” (Italics added)


“A new, animated mosaic from the University of Nantes in France shows nearly the full surface of the moon, including lakes and vast dune fields, for the first time in color.”



Wait.

What does that mean, “other hydrocarbons“?

Here’s how I explain it in Magnetic Reversals and Evolutionary Leaps (p. 134):

“I know a world midway in size between the Moon and Mars,” said Carl Sagan, “where the upper air is crackling with electricity; where the perpetual brown overcast is tinged an odd burnt orange; and where the stuff of life falls out of the skies like manna from heaven onto the unknown surface below.”

And what is that “stuff of life” that Sagan is talking about? That “manna from heaven”?

Hydrocarbons and nitriles constantly fall from Titan’s skies, said Sagan. Titan – the big moon of Saturn – is socked in as a haze of organic solids formed high in its skies slowly fall and accumu­late on its surface. Oceans of water are impossible on Titan (it’s too cold), but “vast oceans of liquid hydrocarbons are expect­ed.”

Created, in other words.

“It’s enough to make a Texas oil man drool,” exclaimed an article in the Seattle Times (21 Mar 1995). New images from the Hubble space telescope show that Titan may have lakes of oil as big as all five Great Lakes put together.

Rivers of Oil

It may be oil, or it may be methane.

Photographs taken by the European Space Agency’s Huygens probe, which landed on Saturn’s largest moon on January 14, 2005, show images of streams, springs and deltas that look eerily similar to river networks on earth, except that these networks were carved into the landscape by rivers of oil or liquid methane. Other images from the Cassini mission show hydrocarbon lakes, replete with shorelines, bays and channels. One lake, as big as North America’s Lake Ontario, has been dubbed Ontario Lacus.

We estimate that Titan “contains more hydrocarbon liquid than the entire known oil and gas reserves on Earth,” says Ralph Lorenz of Johns Hopkins University’s Applied Physics Laboratory.

“Titan sports a complete hydrological cycle, one where it rains methane,” said an article in Sky and Telescope. (April 2005) The methane “evaporates, condenses, forms clouds, and rains back down onto Titan.” Other hydro-carbon byproducts form a photo-chemical smog in Titan’s atmosphere.*

Same on Jupiter.

Our experiments in ionizing a reduced atmo­sphere show that “it rains crude oil on Jupiter,” said Willard Libby, in his 1969 talk “Space Science” (the same Libby who discovered radiocarbon dating).

Uranus and Neptune also have large admixtures of car-bon in their atmospheres, said the late Thomas Gold in his 2001 book The Deep Hot Biosphere: The Myth of fossil fuels. “It is now generally agreed that there is a profuse supply of hydrocarbons on many other bodies of the solar system, where no origin from surface biology can be suggested,” said Gold. “Carbon is the fourth most abundant element in the universe and also in our solar system. I am sure,” Gold added, “that there were no big stagnant swamps on Titan.”

Why not here?

It seems such a simple question.

Why not here?

If carbon can form in Titan’s hazy skies, if crude oil can rain out of Jupiter’s skies, then why not here?

See other photos from Cassini and its Titan probe during its seven years of orbiting Saturn:

http://nationaljournal.com/tech/map-of-saturn-s-moon-titan-reveals-earth-like-features-20111012

* Bitumen raining from the sky

Suddenly, the old Mexican myths about bitumen raining from the sky (The Manuscript Quiché, Brasseur, Histoire des nations civilisées du Mexique, I., 55), or the old Syrian tales about oil raining from the sky (Ras-Shamra [Ugarit], C. H. Gord­on, The Loves and Wars of Baal and Anat, 1943), don’t seem quite so mythical.

Nor do the Midrashim texts that speak of naphtha (petroleum) falling from the sky (Midrash Tanhu­ma, Midrash Psikta Raboti, and Midrash Wa-Yosha).

Immanuel Velikov­sky told of these myths in his book Worlds in Colli­sion, pp. 69-71 and 149.